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Works of the Flesh vs. Fruit of the Spirit: A Deep Dive into Galatians 5:19-23

Updated: Sep 22, 2023

In the Book of Galatians, the Apostle Paul addresses a pivotal question:

What defines the Christian life, and how can believers distinguish between living according to the flesh and walking in the Spirit?

In Galatians 5:19-23, he provides a profound insight into these questions, drawing a sharp contrast between the "works of the flesh" and the "fruit of the Spirit." For this week's Theology Thursday, we will delve into the meaning of these terms, explore their implications, and uncover the transformative power of the Spirit in producing godly character.

Jesus and Satan arm wrestling

Galatians 5:19-23 (ESV):

"Now the works of the flesh are evident: sexual immorality, impurity, sensuality, idolatry, sorcery, enmity, strife, jealousy, fits of anger, rivalries, dissensions, divisions, envy, drunkenness, orgies, and things like these. I warn you, as I warned you before, that those who do such things will not inherit the kingdom of God. But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness, self-control; against such things there is no law."


Understanding the "Works of the Flesh":

Paul begins by listing what he calls the "works of the flesh." These are actions and attitudes that arise from a life dominated by sinful inclinations:


1. Sexual Immorality: This term encompasses any form of sexual activity outside the boundaries of a monogamous, heterosexual marriage.

2. Impurity: It refers to moral and ethical impurity, including thoughts and actions that are contrary to God's standards of holiness.

3. Sensuality: Sensuality involves unrestrained indulgence in physical pleasure, often disregarding moral and spiritual principles.

4. Idolatry: Idolatry is the worship of false gods or anything that takes precedence over God in one's life.

5. Sorcery: Sorcery involves seeking supernatural power through occult practices and is rooted in rebellion against God.

6. Enmity, Strife, Jealousy: These attitudes foster discord and division among people, leading to hostility and resentment.

7. Fits of Anger, Rivalries, Dissensions, Divisions: These actions promote division, conflict, and a divisive spirit within the Christian community.

8. Envy: Envy is a resentful desire for what others have, leading to discontent and jealousy.

9. Drunkenness and Orgies: These behaviors are characterized by excessive indulgence in alcohol and unrestrained, immoral gatherings.


Paul issues a clear warning that those who persist in living according to the works of the flesh will not inherit the kingdom of God. This serves as a sober reminder of the seriousness of sin and its consequences.


Exploring the "Fruit of the Spirit":

In contrast to the works of the flesh, Paul introduces the concept of the "fruit of the Spirit." The fruit of the Spirit is the product of a life yielded to the influence and guidance of the Holy Spirit. It reflects the character of Christ and manifests in the lives of believers:


1. Love: This love is not mere affection but selfless, sacrificial love that seeks the well-being of others.

2. Joy: It is a deep sense of contentment and rejoicing that transcends circumstances.

3. Peace: This peace goes beyond the absence of conflict and includes a sense of tranquility and wholeness in Christ.

4. Patience: Patience involves enduring difficulties and trials with a steadfast spirit.

5. Kindness: It is marked by compassion, goodwill, and a desire to extend grace to others.

6. Goodness: Goodness reflects moral integrity, a desire to do what is right, and a genuine character.

7. Faithfulness: It signifies unwavering loyalty, trustworthiness, and reliability.

8. Gentleness: Gentleness involves a humble and considerate approach to dealing with others.

9. Self-Control: This trait reflects mastery over one's desires and impulses, guided by the Holy Spirit.


The Transformative Power of the Spirit:

The contrast between the works of the flesh and the fruit of the Spirit underscores the transformative power of the Holy Spirit in the life of a believer. As we yield to the Spirit's guidance, our character begins to reflect the nature of Christ. The fruit of the Spirit is not something we manufacture; it is produced in us as we walk in step with the Spirit.


Paul's message to the Galatians is a call to live by the Spirit, to crucify the flesh with its passions and desires (Galatians 5:24). It is an invitation to embrace a life marked by love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness, and self-control.


Conclusion: Walking in the Spirit

Galatians 5:19-23 provides a roadmap for Christian living. It challenges us to examine our lives, identifying areas where we may be yielding to the works of the flesh, and inviting us to surrender to the transforming work of the Holy Spirit. As we walk in step with the Spirit, we will see the fruit of the Spirit blossoming in our lives, bringing us closer to the image of Christ and reflecting His character to the world.

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